From 1990 until 1997 Landmesser studied human medicine at the Hannover Medical School, the University of Connecticut in Farmington (USA) and the National Heart & Lung Institute in London; he specialised in internal medicine and cardiology at the Medical School of Hannover. In 2000–2001 he performed a post-doctoral fellowship at the Department of Cardiology at the Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (USA) as a scholar of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Landmesser returned to Hannover and qualified as lecturer on the subject of Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. When his specialist medical training in cardiology and internal medicine was acknowledged, he first had been working in Hannover until he started his employment as senior physician at the University Hospital of Zürich. In 2010 he was appointed professor by the University of Zürich. In 2010 he became head of Acute Cardiology and in 2012 deputy head of the Department of Cardiology at the University Hospital of Zürich. Since 2014 Landmesser has acted as chairman of the Department of Cardiology at the Charité in Berlin. Furthermore, from 2012 to 2014 he was visiting professor at the University College London and since 2009 has been a deputy editor of the European Heart Journal.